Applying the Risk of Bias assessments to GRADE


This lesson is the third in the series of online learning materials designed to help guideline developers and authors of systematic reviews learn how to use the GRADE approach to grade the evidence in systematic reviews, to create Summary of Findings Tables and GRADE Evidence Profiles, and move from evidence to making recommendations.

This lesson introduces the concept of risk of bias or limitations in study design and execution. It explains how the risk of bias affects the quality of evidence. Examples are provided as an exercise in applying the risk of bias assessment to grade the quality of evidence.

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After using this resource, you should be able to...
  • understand how risk of bias affects the quality of evidence
  • translate the assessment of risk of bias in each of the included studies into the GRADE assessment of quality of evidence accross studies

Applying the Risk of Bias assessments to GRADE

Author information: 
Schünemann, Holger; Santesso, Nancy

Prepared by Holger Schünemann and Nancy Santesso from the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. Funding for the development of this lesson was provided by the Cochrane Collaboration through the grant 'Training and Capacity Building for Summary of Findings Tables' and the World Health Organization.