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  1. Page

    Chapter 25: Assessing risk of bias in a non-randomized study

    Jonathan AC Sterne, Miguel A Hernán, Alexandra McAleenan, Barnaby C Reeves, Julian PT Higgins Key Points: The Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool is recommended for assessing the risk of bias in non-randomized studies o ...
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    Chapter 11: Undertaking network meta-analyses

    Anna Chaimani, Deborah M Caldwell, Tianjing Li, Julian PT Higgins, Georgia Salanti Key Points: Network meta-analysis is a technique for comparing three or more interventions simultaneously in a single analysis by combining both direct and indirect evidenc ...
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    Chapter 16: Equity and specific populations

    Vivian A Welch, Jennifer Petkovic, Janet Jull, Lisa Hartling, Terry Klassen, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Jordi Pardo Pardo, Mark Petticrew, David J Stott, Denise Thomson, Erin Ueffing, Katrina Williams, Camilla Young, Peter Tugwell Key Points: Health equity i ...
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    Part 3: Specific perspectives in reviews

    Part 3 provides considerations for tackling systematic reviews from different perspectives, such as when thinking about specific populations, or complex interventions, or particular types of outcomes. It comprises the following chapters: 16.    Equity 17. ...
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    Chapter 2: Determining the scope of the review and the questions it will address

    James Thomas, Dylan Kneale, Joanne E McKenzie, Sue E Brennan, Soumyadeep Bhaumik Key Points: Systematic reviews should address answerable questions and fill important gaps in knowledge. Developing good review questions takes time, expertise and engagement ...
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    Chapter 14: Completing ‘Summary of findings’ tables and grading the certainty of the evidence

    Holger J Schünemann, Julian PT Higgins, Gunn E Vist, Paul Glasziou, Elie A Akl, Nicole Skoetz, Gordon H Guyatt; on behalf of the Cochrane GRADEing Methods Group (formerly Applicability and Recommendations Methods Group) and the Cochrane Statistical Method ...
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    Chapter 18: Patient-reported outcomes

    Bradley C Johnston, Donald L Patrick, Tahira Devji, Lara J Maxwell, Clifton O Bingham III, Dorcas E Beaton, Maarten Boers, Matthias Briel, Jason W Busse, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Robin Christensen, Bruno R da Costa, Regina El Dib, Anne Lyddiatt, Raymond W O ...
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    Part 2: Core methods

    Part 2 provides the core methodology for undertaking systematic reviews on the effects of health interventions, with a particular emphasis on reviewing randomized trials. It comprises the following chapters: Starting a review Determining the scope and que ...
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    Part 4: Other topics

    Part 4 covers a range of further topics, including reviewing evidence other than straightforward randomized trials. It comprises the following chapters: 22.     Prospective approaches 23.     Variants on randomized trials 24.     Including non-randomized ...
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    Chapter 13: Assessing risk of bias due to missing results in a synthesis

    Matthew J Page, Julian PT Higgins, Jonathan AC Sterne Key Points: Systematic reviews seek to identify all research that meets the eligibility criteria. However, this goal can be compromised by ‘non-reporting bias’: when decisions about how, when or where ...