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    Chapter 21: Qualitative evidence

    Jane Noyes, Andrew Booth, Margaret Cargo, Kate Flemming, Angela Harden, Janet Harris, Ruth Garside, Karin Hannes, Tomás Pantoja, James Thomas Key Points: A qualitative evidence synthesis (commonly referred to as QES) can add value by providing decision ma ...
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    Chapter 22: Prospective approaches to accumulating evidence

    James Thomas, Lisa M Askie, Jesse A Berlin, Julian H Elliott, Davina Ghersi, Mark Simmonds, Yemisi Takwoingi, Jayne F Tierney, Julian PT Higgins Key Points: Cochrane Reviews should reflect the state of current knowledge, but maintaining their currency is ...
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    Chapter 23: Including variants on randomized trials

    Julian PT Higgins, Sandra Eldridge, Tianjing Li Key Points: Non-standard designs, such as cluster-randomized trials and crossover trials, should be analysed using methods appropriate to the design. If the authors of studies included in the review fail to ...
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    Chapter 25: Assessing risk of bias in a non-randomized study

    Jonathan AC Sterne, Miguel A Hernán, Alexandra McAleenan, Barnaby C Reeves, Julian PT Higgins Key Points: The Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool is recommended for assessing the risk of bias in non-randomized studies o ...
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    Chapter 11: Undertaking network meta-analyses

    Anna Chaimani, Deborah M Caldwell, Tianjing Li, Julian PT Higgins, Georgia Salanti Key Points: Network meta-analysis is a technique for comparing three or more interventions simultaneously in a single analysis by combining both direct and indirect evidenc ...
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    Chapter 16: Equity and specific populations

    Vivian A Welch, Jennifer Petkovic, Janet Jull, Lisa Hartling, Terry Klassen, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Jordi Pardo Pardo, Mark Petticrew, David J Stott, Denise Thomson, Erin Ueffing, Katrina Williams, Camilla Young, Peter Tugwell Key Points: Health equity i ...
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    Part 3: Specific perspectives in reviews

    Part 3 provides considerations for tackling systematic reviews from different perspectives, such as when thinking about specific populations, or complex interventions, or particular types of outcomes. It comprises the following chapters: 16.    Equity 17. ...
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    Chapter 1: Starting a review

    Toby J Lasserson, James Thomas, Julian PT Higgins Key Points: Systematic reviews address a need for health decision makers to be able to access high quality, relevant, accessible and up-to-date information. Systematic reviews aim to minimize bias through ...
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    Chapter 2: Determining the scope of the review and the questions it will address

    James Thomas, Dylan Kneale, Joanne E McKenzie, Sue E Brennan, Soumyadeep Bhaumik Key Points: Systematic reviews should address answerable questions and fill important gaps in knowledge. Developing good review questions takes time, expertise and engagement ...
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    Chapter 5: Collecting data

    Tianjing Li, Julian PT Higgins, Jonathan J Deeks Key Points: Systematic reviews have studies, rather than reports, as the unit of interest, and so multiple reports of the same study need to be identified and linked together before or after data extraction ...

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