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    Chapter 12: Synthesizing and presenting findings using other methods

    Joanne E McKenzie, Sue E Brennan Key Points: Meta-analysis of effect estimates has many advantages, but other synthesis methods may need to be considered in the circumstance where there is incompletely reported data in the primary studies. Alternative syn ...
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    Chapter 13: Assessing risk of bias due to missing results in a synthesis

    Matthew J Page, Julian PT Higgins, Jonathan AC Sterne Key Points: Systematic reviews seek to identify all research that meets the eligibility criteria. However, this goal can be compromised by ‘non-reporting bias’: when decisions about how, when or where ...
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    Chapter 15: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions

    Holger J Schünemann, Gunn E Vist, Julian PT Higgins, Nancy Santesso, Jonathan J Deeks, Paul Glasziou, Elie A Akl, Gordon H Guyatt; on behalf of the Cochrane GRADEing Methods Group Key Points: This chapter provides guidance on interpreting the results of s ...
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    Chapter 16: Equity and specific populations

    Vivian A Welch, Jennifer Petkovic, Janet Jull, Lisa Hartling, Terry Klassen, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Jordi Pardo Pardo, Mark Petticrew, David J Stott, Denise Thomson, Erin Ueffing, Katrina Williams, Camilla Young, Peter Tugwell Key Points: Health equity i ...
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    Chapter 17: Intervention complexity

    James Thomas, Mark Petticrew, Jane Noyes, Jacqueline Chandler, Eva Rehfuess, Peter Tugwell, Vivian A Welch Key Points: We refer to ‘intervention complexity’, rather than ‘complex intervention’, because no intervention is simple, and many review authors wi ...
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    Chapter 18: Patient-reported outcomes

    Bradley C Johnston, Donald L Patrick, Tahira Devji, Lara J Maxwell, Clifton O Bingham III, Dorcas E Beaton, Maarten Boers, Matthias Briel, Jason W Busse, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Robin Christensen, Bruno R da Costa, Regina El Dib, Anne Lyddiatt, Raymond W O ...
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    Chapter 19: Adverse effects

    Guy Peryer, Su Golder, Daniela R Junqueira, Sunita Vohra, Yoon Kong Loke; on behalf of the Cochrane Adverse Effects Methods Group Key Points: To achieve a balanced perspective, all reviews should try to consider adverse aspects of interventions. A detaile ...
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    Chapter 20: Economic evidence

    Ian Shemilt, Patricia Aluko, Erin Graybill, Dawn Craig, Catherine Henderson, Michael Drummond, Edward CF Wilson, Shannon Robalino, Luke Vale; on behalf of the Campbell and Cochrane Economics Methods Group Key Points: Economics is the study of the optimal ...
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    Chapter 21: Qualitative evidence

    Jane Noyes, Andrew Booth, Margaret Cargo, Kate Flemming, Angela Harden, Janet Harris, Ruth Garside, Karin Hannes, Tomás Pantoja, James Thomas Key Points: A qualitative evidence synthesis (commonly referred to as QES) can add value by providing decision ma ...
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    Chapter 22: Prospective approaches to accumulating evidence

    James Thomas, Lisa M Askie, Jesse A Berlin, Julian H Elliott, Davina Ghersi, Mark Simmonds, Yemisi Takwoingi, Jayne F Tierney, Julian PT Higgins Key Points: Cochrane Reviews should reflect the state of current knowledge, but maintaining their currency is ...