Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) reporting guideline


About this module

The Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) guideline provides nine items to improve the transparent reporting of synthesis of intervention effects when the synthesis does not use meta-analysis of standardised effect sizes. This learning module presents the nine reporting items through activities and examples. It includes a ‘Check your knowledge’ section, and a list of useful resources.

You will need a Cochrane Account to access this module. If you don’t have a Cochrane Account you will be able to register for **free** on the following page. You will be able to use this account for all future activity. If you have any problems, please contact

What you can expect to learn (learning outcomes)

This module will teach you to:

  • Have a clear understanding of the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) guideline reporting items
  • Be able to apply the SWiM reporting items in a review as an author or as a reader

Authors and contributors

This module has been written and compiled by: Hilary Thomson (Senior Research Fellow, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow; Joint Co-ordinating Editor, Cochrane Public Health) and Mhairi Campbell (Research Associate, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow), with the support of Dario Sambunjak and Chris Watts from Cochrane's People Services Department and Kiln Design Ltd.

A full list of contributors is available in the 'About this Resource' section of the module.

Staying up to date

This module was last updated in March 2020.

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